The article analyzes Jewish–Catholic relations with respect to New Testament interpretation, the apostle Paul, and theology. In the New Testament era, Paul promoted God’s openness to Gentiles. In recent decades, increasing numbers of Jewish scholars have engaged the New Testament and specifically Paul’s letters. This has called forth, for the most part, Christian hospitality toward Jewish interpretations. But the opportunities of this renewed relationship also bring new challenges for cultivating respect; the latter part of this article addresses four of these contemporary biblical, liturgical, legal, and theological topics.